Completed Projects 2020

Digital Payments Adoption in India

COVID-19 has imposed significant limitations on people’s lives. The lockdown period in India, lasting few months of 2020, has altered how India pays, driven by lifestyle changes. While the top and middle segment household people were largely at home, the bottom segment faced numerous challenges in fulfilling their needs. Across the spectrum, people were finding ways to live, work, transact and discovering the uses of digital transactions.

A persistent underlying digital DNA to government programs such as Digital India, Jan Dhan Yojna, PM SVANidhi scheme for street vendors, DBT release, mandating NETC FASTag for tolling, etc. further brought problem solving to the grass roots. The government’s significant benefits outlay also needed to reach the right target segment. RBI set the enabling tone by releasing guidelines on V-KYC, contactless payments, o ine payments, recurring payments on cards and UPI, standardization of QR and expanding BBPS categories. Banks, Fintechs, Payment providers and Business Correspondents played a strong role by fast tracking their digital initiatives and innovating at pace to address the gaps for consumer and merchants. UPI volumes dipped and soared as word spread through family, friends and campaigns, RuPay cards volumes picked up even in remote PIN codes that had hitherto remained silent, e-com card payments boomed and AePS, Aadhaar enabled payments, was providing the backbone for people to have access to their funds as they needed it.

Sponsor: National Payment corporation of India

PRICE Research Team: Rama Bijapurkar, Rajesh Shukla, Pooja Sharma, Shailendra Dubey, Ashwini Joshi
NPCI Research Team: Praveena Rai, Vikas Sachdeva, Kunal Kalawatia


Digital Payments Adoption in India - Completed.


National Payment corporation of India


To understand the digital payments awareness, adoption and use behaviour of households.


Covered 25 major Indian states (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Puducherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal).

Sample Frame

Carefully constructed sample drawn from a proprietary sample frame of 35,000 households taken from 2016 survey of one lakh households

Sample Size

Over 5,000 households covering 25 states pre divided into low, middle, high income states based on government data and sample drawn from each

Method of Data Collection

Telephonic interview


Diverse groups of respondents were covered in the survey such as age group (18-25, 26-33, 34-45, 45+); income class (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5) and gender (Male, Female).

Reference period

Calendar year 2020 

Survey period

August-September 2020

Research Team

PRICE: Rama Bijapurkar, Rajesh Shukla, Pooja Sharma, Shailendra Dubey, Ashwini Joshi

NPCI: Praveena Rai, Vikas Sachdeva, Kunal Kalawatia